The model of equine therapy TRR uses is called Equine Assisted Psychotherapy.

Equine Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP) is a powerful psychotherapeutic approach that includes horses as part of a psychotherapy team. The other members of the team are a licensed mental health professional and an equine specialist professional. All work with the horses takes place on the ground only – there is no riding.

Working with horses can help people discover and overcome unhealthy patterns and behaviors, especially as they affect our relationships with other people. This is because the horse, as a non-verbal communicator, gives immediate feedback about actions and body language through their own response. Horses are exceptionally sensitive and are able to mirror emotions as well as behavior. We learn what is going on with our human clients by watching what the horses are doing.

EAP for Combat Trauma and First Responder Trauma

The application of equine assisted psychotherapy to the treatment of traumatized individuals, including and especially combat veterans and first responders, is a new and important development. Exposure to traumatic events produces a massive upheaval in the arousal system. Many trauma symptoms express themselves as either hyper or hypo nervous system response. A few of these are irritability and anger, sleep disruption, hyper-vigilance, and an exaggerated startle response.

The other system that is disrupted with multiple traumas, trauma of extended duration or that which is inter personally inflicted is the attachment system. This gives rise to many of the symptoms now considered to be complex trauma, some of which are impaired relationships with family and friends, a generalized social withdrawal, and a loss of previously sustaining beliefs, among others.

And, in the context of combat trauma exists Moral Injury which we define as an existential or spiritual crisis that can be the consequence of having been trained to override the intrinsic aversion to the taking of human life. It can also be the result of having engaged in combat operations, however necessary at the time, during which one’s ethics and actions did not align. 

Working in close proximity to horses seems to be of extraordinary help in addressing these challenges. There are a few reasons this is so:

  1. Horses live in the present moment. They respond to what is and to intention. Interacting with them teaches mindfulness, which can be a window into reclaiming life as it is lived in the here and now.
  2. Horses are active. Working with them necessitates movement and grounding, which decreases arousal and dissociation. Mindfulness, grounding, movement and working in the present moment all increase the individual’s capacity to experience the present rather than responding to the traumatic past.
  3. Horses are social animals. Their natural curiosity and playfulness is, at times, so powerful as to supersede their interest in food. Being invited to interact with them overcomes isolation and supports people’s interest in novelty. This helps to re-engage the frontal lobes, increasing the capacity to think.
  4. Horses are non-judgemental. They accept people and other horses as they are, without bias or discrimination.
  5. Horses live in a herd. They model non-predatory group behavior and can teach people how to interact without violence.

At TRR we understand that combat veterans do not get traumatized or experience Moral Injury in isolation. Their trauma and Moral Injury happens in the context of a highly trained, closely knit, cohesive unit. And so healing needs to happen in a unit. In our Warrior Camp® program and our equine training for professionals we teach through a group process that involves working with a herd of 7-8 horses, at liberty – without any instruments of control or domination. This is to help participants, by observing and interacting with the herd, learn to engage in a way that reduces conflict both between people and internal to each individual. 


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James Vanreusel is the founder and CEO of Vanreusel Ventures, with 22 years of global financial experience. His background includes helping new companies grow and scale, creating a framework for financial success, and acting as a CFO for emerging organizations as they build a solid business foundation.

He began consulting in 2008, specializing in private equity and asset management, where he raised capital, built portfolios, and operated company models. From there, he transitioned to corporate investing. As a CFA Charterholder, he became CFO for SPBD, a microfinance network in the South Pacific. He used his global experience in finance to launch and operate multiple banks in Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, the Solomon Islands, and a holding company in Singapore. The company in Singapore saw 600% growth under his guidance.

In 2014 he founded his current business, Vanreusel Ventures, in San Francisco. At Vanreusel Ventures, he leads a team of CFO consultants and financial analysts who work with companies worldwide in profit and non-profit sectors. He manages alongside his team to help businesses through the initial stages of growth, where his strategies and support guide businesses towards success and eventual independence.

His strategy focuses on creating a framework that supports companies in their early years to go from $1 to $100 million in revenue. This process involves building scalable teams and systems that will grow along with the business. Many of his clients are global organizations where he can leverage his international experience to offer customized strategies that are also culturally relevant. Ultimately, he prepares businesses to take on their first full-time CFO.

Alex Betke is an attorney and registered lobbyist focusing his practice on Government Relations and Municipal Law, a unique combination of legal concentrations allowing him to meet clients’ needs at all levels of government and to provide innovative resolutions to a variety of legal challenges.

Alex enjoys considerable experience working with the Governor’s Office, the Legislature, state agencies, the Attorney General and the State Comptroller, along with New York’s federal government representatives. His clients range from major industry associations and fortune 500 companies to small businesses and not-for-profit organizations, with work encompassing all aspects of government relations, including legislation, procurement, appropriations and regulatory matters.

Previously, Alex was elected for eight years as the Town Supervisor of the Town of Coxsackie and served several terms as a councilman before holding that post. Based on his experience and exposure to the workings of local government, he established and grew a municipal practice, and continues to serve as general and special counsel to various municipalities.

Alex has been involved in New York State politics throughout his career, serving as an elected state committeeman for the New York State Democratic Party and working on several statewide campaigns. This experience, in addition to his professional work, contributes to and informs his approach to legal matters and increases his effectiveness in advancing client objectives.